Many books and other studies address the
issues that are central to Civic Tourism. What follows is an annotated,
alphabetical list of some of the most recent works on this topic.
Beatley, Timothy and
Kristy Manning. The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment,
Economy, and Community. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1997
(265 pp.). Beatley is one of the most perceptive and knowledgeable
scholars writing on the themes of place and sustainability, and
this book is one of the best publications for communities that wish
to move in a more sustainable direction.
Managing Quality Cultural Tourism. London: Routledge, 1995
(127 pp.). Boniface is a pioneer in heritage tourism studies,
and this book, a brief text that seems intended mostly for students
rather than practitioners, is one of the earliest to approach the
issue of cultural resource management from a tourism perspective.
Bosselman, Fred P., Craig A. Peterson, and Claire McCarthy. Managing Tourism Growth: Issues and Applications. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999 (304 pp.). The approach here is technical and legal. The authors examine how entire communities - neighborhoods, towns, cities, regions, countries - approach tourism. They note tourism can provide benefits to host communities, mostly economic, but they're also clear that the industry can have a downside if it's not managed according to local customs, capacities, and values.
Practical Politics: Five Principles for a Community That Works.
Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1999 (238 pp.). Long-time
community activist Briand explains in clear terms, with many examples
and ample direction, five principles for reinvigorating civic participation
in communities: inclusion, comprehension, deliberation, cooperation,
realism. It’s both conceptual and highly practical –
a great place to begin the work of self-government.
Brown, Jessica, Nora Mitchell
and Michael Beresford (eds.). The Protected Landscape Approach:
Linking Nature, Culture and Community. Cambridge UK: IUCN Publications
Services Unit, 2005 (268 pp.). This anthology of 17 articles
examines the growing "Protected Landscape Approach"
within the conservation movement. While much of the book is technical
and intended for conservationists, it is accessible to most readers,
especially those wishing to build a healthier quality of life for
their community. Most essays focus on the evolving nature of landscape
conservation, which increasingly is recognizing the interrelationships
between land and human culture. As such, the book urges local cooperation
among place-based entities, and it describes "place"
as a web – not as a separate and disconnected hierarchy.
Chambers, Erve (ed.). Tourism
and Culture: An Applied Perspective. Albany: State University
Press of New York, 1997 (221 pp.). The "Applied" in the title
is an attempt to connect the discipline of anthropology to the tourism
industry by examining the underlying cultural contexts within which
tourism operates - and to look at the effects of tourism on different
communities' social markers.
Cronon, William (ed).
Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New
York: W.W. Norton, 1996 (561 pp.). So much of the conversation
about "sense of place" concerns the relationship between
humans and the environment. In this groundbreaking and somewhat
controversial study, fifteen scholars from a variety of backgrounds
(history, science, philosophy, gender studies, literature, etc.)
examine the ways nature is constructed through culture. While the
book offers few solutions to our environmental problems, the essays
certainly provide a different way of thinking about them.
Daily, Gretchen C.
and Katherine Ellison. The New Economy of Nature: The Quest
To Make Conservation Profitable. Washington, D.C.: Island Press,
2002 (260 pp.). Just as ecotourism and heritage tourism use
the natural and cultural environments for economic benefits, a new
breed of ecological entrepreneurs is experimenting with programs
and approaches that will help save our disappearing natural resources
and make money at the same time.
Daly, Herman. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996 (253 pp.). Daly, a former economist for the World Bank, has become one of the principal spokespersons for the sustainability movement. Many other steady-state advocates fall into the slow-growth, environmental, or even religious sectors; and while they make persuasive moral arguments, most generally don’t possess a deep understanding of the economics profession. Daly’s primary argument is that accepted theory does not account for a limited ecosystem, which he illustrates in a series of related objections.
Drummond, Siobhan and
Ian Yeoman (eds.). Quality Issues in Heritage Visitor Attractions.
Oxford: Butterworth / Heinemann, 2001 (273 pp.). This anthology
begins by examining the idea of quality in the service sector, primarily
from a Total Quality Management (TQM) perspective, and then links
this understanding to the heritage industry.
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Jeff Speck. Suburban Nation: The
Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York:
North Point Press, 2000 (294 pp.). Duany and wife Plater-Zybeck
have become the Pied Pipers of New Urbanism, or Neotraditionalism,
as it is also called. This popular book outlines the basic thesis
of their architectural approach to designing livable places.
Dutton, John A.
New American Urbanism: Re-forming the American Metropolis.
New York: Abbeville Publishing Group, 2000 (223 pp.). While
intended primarily for architecture students and city planners,
this highly readable and beautifully illustrated book is appropriate
for any reader concerned about the design of the American landscape.
Edgell, David L. Managing
Sustainable Tourism: A Legacy for the Future. Binghamton, NY:
The Haworth Press, 2006 (144 pp.). This slim volume by
a seasoned tourism scholar is less about “managing”
sustainable tourism programs than it is about the evolution of the
sustainability niche. Edgell succinctly recounts the developments,
reports, and research in the hospitality sector that have led to
the sustainability movement, an analysis that argues more or less
that a responsible approach to tourism – economically, environmentally,
socially – is not only preferred but necessary, given the
industry's reliance on and connection to environmental and social
contexts. The book would be a good introduction to the tourism developments
that have led to and continue to frame the sustainability debate
within travel industry circles, i.e., ecotourism, cultural tourism,
Edwards, Andres. The Sustainability
Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift. Gabriola Island, B.C.:
New Society Publishers, 2005 (206 pp.). This helpful book provides
a concise overview of the sustainability trend, examining it from
social, cultural, built, economic, and biotic perspectives. Communities,
businesses, and organizations hoping to design and implement sustainable
practices, for tourism or economic development in general, would
do well to consult this book, which serves as a good introduction
or primer – clear and not heavy on technical applications. In
addition to numerous best practices that are described throughout the
text, the index is most helpful, providing dozens of examples of
organizations, websites, publications, and consultants who work
in the sustainability sector. A good place to start.
Ehrenfeld, John. Sustainability By Design. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008 (246 pp.). There is no question that sustainable tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the industry. But what does "sustainable" really mean, and how can communities use this understanding to build healthy places? Ehrenfeld's book is not about tourism per se, but the challenges he presents and the answers he puts forth will make a valuable contribution to any discussion about sustainability.
Daniel and Andrew Winston. Green to Gold: How Smart Companies
Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build
Competitive Advantage. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006
(366 pp.). This book's title pretty much tells the whole
story: business can no longer afford to ignore resource limitations,
and "smart" companies are figuring out how to incorporate "green"
strategies and make money at the same time. Like many books that
document sustainable-business projects, Green to Gold tends
to focus on companies whose link to the environment is obvious,
such as manufacturers and oil firms, never mentioning tourism or
community development. Still, the value of this book is its clear
argument for environmental awareness and the many tools the authors
provide to help companies develop plans to incorporate a sustainable
culture throughout the value chain. Green to Gold is an
excellent manifesto for "smart" commerce, as well as a good map
to help companies and communities move in the "green" direction
while enhancing the bottom line.
Feifer, Maxine. Tourism
in History: From Imperial Rome to the Present. New York: Stein
and Day, 1985 (288 pp.). Although her study is now more
than two decades old, Feifer's account of the history of tourism
throughout the world is still one of the most relevant overviews
for any student of the travel industry. In particular, Feifer shows
that current tourism trends, such as cultural tourism or heritage
tourism, were always part of leisure travel, well before the terms
were coined. Her concept of the "post-tourist" is still
debated among academics and practitioners today.
Florida, Richard. The Flight of the Creative Class:
The New Global Competition for Talent. New York: HarperCollins,
2005 (326 pp.). This follow-up to economist Florida's bestselling
The Rise of the Creative Class argues that cities, regions,
and nations must prepare for the "creative economy" if
they are to succeed. Florida suggests, however, that the U.S. is
in danger of losing out because, being stuck in an Industrial Age
economy, the country is not attracting or growing the talented individuals
who will help to expand the creative class. State and local directors
of economic development should at least be familiar with Florida's
Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class: And
How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday
Life. New York: Basic Books, 2002 (404 pp.). Florida’s
bestselling and controversial work argues that a new "Creative
Class" is central to the emerging knowledge-based economy.
He suggests communities should position themselves to attract the
Creative Class, because of their high income and education levels.
What this group is looking for, he maintains, are communities that
are diverse, tolerant, and dynamic – the opposite of many
manufactured places. Florida usually encourages communities to steer
clear of tourism, arguing that it's not healthy economic development.
Like others, he only understands tourism as boxy motels, fast food
franchises, and souvenir shops. Florida's approach to "creative"
community building can be applied to the tourism sector too - generating
the same economic and quality-of-life benefits he seeks elsewhere
- but that's something Florida overlooks.
Fodor, Eben. Better Not Bigger: How To Take Control
of Urban Growth and Improve Your Community. Gabriola Island,
B.C.: New Society Publishers, 1999 (175 pp.). Fodor is
a long-time activist in the growth battles in Portland, Oregon,
one of the few cities that has enacted policies like Urban Growth
Boundaries. This book stems from his research into the costs and
consequences of the growth machine.
Friedman, Thomas L. Hot, Flat, and Crowded. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2008 (516 pp.). Friedman's best-seller makes a convincing argument for why cities and towns should embrace a green economy. Similar to most other books on this topic, Hot, Flat, and Crowded rarely if ever mentions the tourism industry, a glaring oversight in a book that purports to be about the global economy. Still, Friedman describes many examples of how investing in renewable and sustainable products benefits economic development. For tourism officials the message is clear: take advantage of new economic trends at the same time you enhance you place-based tourism product. A win-win!
R. and J.R. Brent Ritchie. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies,
9th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003 (606 pp.).
This massive textbook is fairly typical of the publications used
in university classrooms to teach tourism. The book is extremely
comprehensive, demonstrating that tourism is not a separate industry,
but instead a business that connects to nearly every economic, social,
environmental, or cultural sector in most communities. The introductory
chapters, putting tourism into a large economic, geographic, and
cultural context, are particularly helpful. Much of the book is
aimed at students wishing to make a career in tourism, either as
travel agents, hotel managers, or related professions; and it almost
reads like a recruiting tool.
Graham, Brian, G. J. Ashworth and J. E. Tunbridge. A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture & Economy. London: Arnold, 2000 (284 pp.). This far-reaching text provides dozens of interesting ideas about the nature, ownership, and presentation of heritage, although it is probably valuable as an academic exercise than as a helpful tool for heritage tourism managers.
Greider, William. The Soul of Capitalism: Opening Paths to a Moral Economy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003 (366 pp.). Greider's analysis joins the growing number of voices calling for a new understanding of what "success" looks like for capitalism. Similar to books such as Savitz's The Triple Bottom Line, Greider includes social and environmental factors in his evaluation of economic success. His approach also depends on civic engagement, since he believes most corporations and governments are unwilling to imagine a different system. Interestingly, like many "new economy" studies, he never mentions tourism, but the book's lessons are clearly relevant.
Harris, Rob, Tony Griffin and Peter
Williams. Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective. Oxford:
Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 (311 pp.). Sustainable tourism is
one of the growth markets within the tourism industry. This collection
of nearly 20 essays could spend a little time with the question
of what sustainable tourism actually is, and less time documenting
"best practices" that are far from conclusive, and somewhat repetitive.
Hart, Stuart. Capitalism at
the Crossroads: Aligning Business, Earth, and Humanity, 2nd
ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing, 2007 (260
pp.). While this book focuses more on developing sustainable
business practices in the third world, the principles that underlie
his strategies are no less relevant for any community or commercial
enterprise hoping to create sustainable programs that go "beyond
greening." Of particular interest for Civic Tourism is Hart's
insistence that businesses "become indigenous," that is,
that they incorporate the values of local people, so new enterprises
are designed from the ground up, rather than the typical corporate
The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability.
New York: HarperCollins, 1993 (250 pp.). Business leader
Hawken has provided one of the earliest and clearest manifestos
highlighting why and how corporations and other industries need
to get on board the sustainability wave. Working from historical
and ethical perspectives, the author argues for a "restorative"
economic system, one that "creates, increases, nourishes and
enhances life on earth." In this far-reaching examination of
our cultural values, social structures, economic drivers, and political
realities, Hawken demonstrates to businesses trying to earn a profit
and activists hoping to save the environment how they can work together
toward sustainable ends. The book is filled with many case studies
Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins. Natural Capitalism: Creating
the Next Industrial Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Company,
1999 (396 pp.). Businessman Hawken and the Lovins, founders
of the Rocky Mountain Institute, coined the term "Natural
Capitalism," which shares much with the ecological economics
promoted by Hermann Daly. Natural Capitalism demands that businesses
and corporations account for the Triple Bottom Line – that
in addition to the financial ledger, today's companies must also
factor in environmental and social costs. The most helpful sections
in the book are the many, many practices that the authors include
to demonstrate that the market and the environment are not at odds.
Hiss, Tony. The Experience
of Place. New York: Knopf, 1990 (233 pp.). Hiss’s
book has gained something of the status of a classic in the "place"
genre; he’s a personable writer and he was probably one of
the first to write about the idea of "place" in this way.
Some of it’s dated, but his book presages many of the placed-based
issues communities wrestle with today.
O., Stephan Schmidheiny and Philip Watts. Walking the Talk:
The Business Case for Sustainable Development. Sheffield, UK:
Greenleaf Publishing Unlimited, 2002 (288 pp.). For anyone
who still maintains that community development has to be either
jobs or the environment, they should consult this book,
written by CEOs of three of the world's largest corporations, including
Shell Oil and DuPont. Walking the Talk introduces the concepts
of “Eco-efficiency,” Corporate Social Responsibility,
and other socially and environmentally sustainable forms of development.
Complete with more than 60 best practices from around the world,
the book demonstrates that sustainable development is not only possible,
but imperative, given our environment's precarious decline during
the last half century.
Honey, Martha. Ecotourism and
Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? Washington, D.C.:
Island Press, 1999 (405 pp.).This well-written and extremely
comprehensive study of ecotourism lays a good deal of the blame
for the unmet promise of ecotourism squarely on the shoulders of
the major players in the travel industry. Honey's criticisms of
and recommendations for ecotourism are applicable to other place-based
forms of tourism.
Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass
Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York:
Oxford Univ. Press, 1985 (396 pp.). Nearly two decades
after its publication, Jackson’s sweeping history is still
one of the finest and clearest overviews of how American-style suburbs
came to dominate the landscape – showing how the automobile,
federal programs, racism, and economic conditions created the perfect
storm that pushed development outward, ruining cities in the process.
Altars of Unhewn Stone: Science and the Earth. San Francisco:
North Point Press, 1987 (158 pp.). Proponents of a responsible
approach to tourism can learn a great deal from Jackson and other
advocates of sustainable agriculture. The idea of "working
landscapes," which is central to Jackson's essays in this anthology,
also relates to tourism development. In both cases, one "uses"
the land to plant, nourish, and reap a sustainable product. Tourism
officials can learn from both the mistakes and successes of farming
and other place-based industries.
The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York:
Random House, 1961 (458 pp.). Although she’s gone
on to write many other books on the nature of cities, economies,
and civilization in general, Jacobs’ Death and Life is still
required reading for anyone interested in the shape of communities.
Most of her observations and recommendations have been validated
by contemporary planners; the New Urbanists, in particular, often
sound like Jane Jacobs updated. It’s amazing how prescient
this New York neighborhood activist was.
Judd, Dennis R. and Susan S. Fainstein
(eds.). The Tourist City. New Haven: Yale University Press,
1999, (340 pp.). This anthology of sixteen essays explores the
ways in which major cities have incorporated tourism into their
economic, social, and cultural development. Although a bit uneven,
the book skillfully shows how large cities, in particular, do or
don't manage to incorporate tourism into the larger social and economic
Kemmis, Daniel. Community
and the Politics of Place. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press,
1990 (150 pp.). The former mayor of Missoula, Kemmis focuses
most of his insights on the notion of "place" –
what he has called "bio-regionalism." In his view, one’s
commitment to the common good begins with a sense of place, and
he makes a strong case that understanding one’s history and
heritage is central to healthy communities.
Kemmis, Daniel. The Good
City and the Good Life: Renewing the Sense of Community. New
York: Houghton Mifflin, 1995 (226 pp.). In some ways, this
is a sequel to Community and the Politics of Place, in that it is
less theoretical and more grounded in Kemmis’s experiences
of a city that works (Missoula, where he was mayor). He includes
many examples of small citizen-initiated activities that help make
Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1998 (326 pp.). Kirchenblatt-Gimblett,
a professor at NYU, writes in that art-critic, academic tone that
is maddeningly convoluted, yet often incisive and exhilarating.
Amid the verbal gymnastics, Kirchenblatt-Gimblett intersperses dozens
of nuggets about the current state of culture, the function of museums,
and the relation of both to tourism.
Kunstler, James Howard. The
Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made
Landscapes. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993 (303 pp.).
Kunstler’s first and still most widely read critique of modern
architecture, urban design, and suburban lifestyles should be read
by anyone concerned about the nature of place-making in America.
Often funny, always witty, Kunstler says what a lot of us have always
thought: many of our towns are ugly but they don’t have to
Kunstler, James Howard. Home from Nowhere: Remaking
Our Everyday World for the 21st Century. New York: Simon &
Schuster, 1996 (318 pp.). In some ways an epilogue to The
Geography of Nowhere, Kunstler provides more examples of how to
redress some of the problems he documented in the earlier book.
His recommendations fall in line with those of New Urbanists and
Aldo. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Ballentine Books,
1949 (303 pp.). There's little doubt Leopold's collection
of essays will become one of the most important books about land,
nature, and sense of place published in the 20th century. For anyone
concerned about those topics, this volume is a must-read. Leopold
said "think like a mountain"; in terms of tourism development,
we urge you to think like Leopold thinking about your community.
Read and relish this book, and find ways to apply Leopold's words
to your tourism activities.
Lippard, Lucy R. The Lure
of the Local: Senses of Place in a Multicentered Society. New
York: The New Press, 1997 (328 pp.). Lippard has long been
one of our best and most prolific cultural observers, mostly in
the realm of art criticism. Lure of the Local is a dense and challenging
book that begins by exploring the notion of place – specifically,
the "local" – in order to suggest how art can contribute
to our understanding of community.
Lippard, Lucy R. On the Beaten
Track: Tourism, Art, and Place. New York: The New Press, 1999
(182 pp.). In this collection of twelve essays, Lippard's target
is tourism and the role of art within the industry. Most of the
art she discusses is created by younger artists, whose work deals
with tourism in general (usually critical), new forms of tourism
(such as cultural tourism), or the ethnic and/or gender dimensions
Loewen, James W. Lies
My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got
Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995 (383 pp.). Yes,
it's a criticism of the way school textbooks teach history, but
Loewen's classic book also provides helpful advice for any museum,
heritage center, or chamber of commerce that uses local history
to attract tourists. Loewen's main argument is that history should
not be whitewashed to provide "feel-good" experiences.
Reading this book will encourage you to think differently about
the way you portray your town - to residents and guests.
Nabhan, Gary Paul and Stephen
Trimble. The Geography of Childhood: Why Children Need Wild
Places. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994 (184 pp.). We love
this book and just about everything Gary Nabhan, an esteemed ethnobotanist,
writes. The theme here is summed up in the title: children need
wildness and exposure to the natural world for their own development
and to better understand their role in the wider community. Great
MacCannell, Dean. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class, 3rd Ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 (231 pp.). MacCannell's is one of the first and still most relevant sociological studies of the tourist, whom he sees as the exemplar for the postmodern figure: "alienated but seeking subjectivity in his alienation." At times challenging, this book should be read by anyone remotely connected to the tourism industry.
McDonough, William and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York: North Point Press, 2002 (193 pp.). This classic study of sustainable design has tremendous implications for the tourism industry, something never mentioned in the book. The authors discuss Triple Bottom Line economic theory, the importance of being "native to place" in terms of product development (rather than homogenous and copycat), and reaching audiences that are "buying green" – voting with their wallets.
McHarg, Ian. Design with Nature. Philadelphia: Natural History Press, 1969 (198 pp.). One of the forerunners of ecological planning, McHarg demonstrates in this classic book how communities can save their natural, historical, and built heritage, at the same time they enhance economic development. Design with Nature includes both philosophical arguments and practical case studies. While he does not mention the hospitality industry specifically, if tourism officials help communities incorporate his plans, they'll end up with a better product to market.
McKercher, Bob and Hilary du Cros. Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management. New York: Hayworth Hospitality Press, 2002 (262 pp.). This is one of the most recent and thorough overviews of cultural tourism, although it falls short of following through with some of its early promises. Still, it helps the tourism industry understand the cultural community, and vice versa.
Least Heat. Blue Highways: A Journey Into America. New
York: Ballantine Books, 1982 (436 pp.). Planners often
speak of "authenticity" as a principle element of place-based
tourism. But what do we really mean by authenticity? This classic
tale offers readers a sense of the "real" America, as
they travel with Least Heat Moon on the nation's "blue highways"
- the back roads on maps where traditions still live and history
Mowforth, Martin and Ian Munt.
Tourism and Sustainability: New Tourism in the Third World.
London: Routledge, 1998 (363 pp.). Although the focus here is
on tourism in the Third World, the principles discussed are relevant
for most heritage tourism sites, as well as the governments, tourism
agencies, NGOs, and others that work with heritage in general and
heritage tourism specifically.
Oldenburg, Ray. The Great
Good Place. New York: Paragon House, 1989 (338 pp.).
Oldenburg’s interesting and lively look at what he terms "third
places" – those spaces where citizens meet in informal
ways – has become one of the classics of place-based literature,
and with good reason. The eradication of third places goes a long
way toward explaining the shape of our communities.
A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers Will Rule the Future.
New York, Berkley Publishing Group, 2005 (275 pp.). Pink's
whole-mind literature is an important supplement to the work of
creative economists like Richard Florida. Pink argues that successful
businesses in the future will tap into people's creativity, including
their ability to think conceptually and holistically. Although he
does not address community development or tourism specifically,
Pink's work relates to place-making because of its focus on using
a creative approach to create meaning.
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.
New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000 (541 pp.). A follow-up
book to the 1995 famous essay of the same title, Putnam’s
lengthy study looks at the nature of public participation in America
– the causes for its decline as well as some practical solutions.
Putnam’s research into urban design suggests sprawl is not
conducive to community-building.
Rothman, Hal (ed.). The Culture
of Tourism, the Tourism of Culture: Selling the Past to the Present
in the American Southwest. University of New Mexico Press, 2003
(250 pp.). This anthology of eleven essays, including one by
editor Rothman, addresses the topic outlined in the Introduction:
how and why cultural tourism has become "an integral part of the
future not only of tourism, but also of the economy of the American
Southwest." Intended more for the historian of tourism than the
Rothman, Hal. Devil's Bargains:
Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West. Lawrence: University
Press of Kansas, 1998 (434 pp.). The premise here is that "tourism
promises much but delivers only a little," and much of what it does
deliver is not what communities anticipate: crowds, environmental
damage, a different resident, inflated property taxes, lost local
businesses, low-wage jobs, and control by outside forces. In sum,
tourism changes communities, often burying the things that drew
people to them. Even if you don't agree with Rothman, it's helpful
to understand his point of view.
Rojek, Chris and John Urry, eds. Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory. London: Routledge, 1997 (214 pp.). Edited by two of tourism's most notable theorists, Touring Cultures presents itself as an anthology of "cutting edge" articles that comment on not only tourism and culture, but also the culture of tourism.
Rypkema, Donovan. The Economics
of Historic Preservation: A Community Leader's Guide. Washington,
D.C.: The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994 (131 pp.).
Rypkema provides a wonderfully readable and practical guide for
historic preservation activists who need ammunition to keep city
councils and developers from ripping down old structures. Let's
hope city councils hear the arguments in this book.
Sanders, Scott Russell. Staying
Put: Making a Home in a Restless World. Boston: Beacon Press,
1993 (203 pp.). This is a beautiful narrative about trying
to establish a sense of place by not bowing to the great God restlessness.
Sanders argues that we need to stay with our environments, stay
with our beliefs, and stay with our families. We're fans of
just about everything Sanders writes, most of which deals with community
and place-based issues.
Andrew. The Triple Bottom Line. San Francisco: John Wiley
& Sons, 2006 (300 pp.). Tourism can certainly benefit
from a "Triple Bottom Line" approach to development and reporting
– accounting not only for the financial bottom line, but social
and environmental bottom lines as well. What industry benefits more
from a healthy environment, for example, than tourism? While this
study rarely mentions tourism, Savitz's book nicely outlines the
evolution of TBL, at the same time it provides suggestions for incorporating
this new approach. We argue that tourism needs to embrace the TBL
Shackley, Myra. Managing Sacred Sites: Service Provision and Visitor Experience. London: Continuum, 2001 (206 pp.). Noting that much tourism is a quest for meaning to some degree, Shackely's book focuses primarily on the management of places people visit for religious, spiritual, and related emotive reasons - including cathedrals, archeological sites, shrines, temples, cemeteries, and even mountains and islands.
and Lewis Friedland. Civic Innovation in America: Community
Empowerment, Public Policy, and the Movement for Civic Renewal.
Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2001 (371 pp.). Anyone
interested in public participation should consult this book, which
is a history of the contemporary civic engagement movement, beginning
primarily in the 1960s. Sirianni and Friedland, professors of sociology
and journalism, respectively, provide a detailed account of how
and why communities are turning to citizens to address today's troubling
issues, from environmental degradation to health care. In the process
they provide many case studies and best practices, and they feature
numerous scholarly and research organizations around the nation
that are working to promote effective public participation.
Smith, Melanie K. Issues
in Cultural Tourism Studies. London: Routledge, 2003 (195 pp.).
Smith has provided one of the best recent surveys of
the cultural tourism industry, from both a cultural and tourism
perspective. Unlike many cultural practitioners, she understands
the tourism industry, and vice versa. Her book is filled with excellent
case studies. Should be on every tourism office's book shelf.
Weaver, David. Sustainable
Tourism. Oxford: Elsevier, 2006 (240 pp.). Dave
Weaver, whose earlier books focus primarily on ecotourism, has written
one of the clearest and most helpful examinations of the growing
sustainable tourism phenomenon. While intended primarily for students,
Weaver's text will be helpful to communities and tourism programs
as well. In a balanced and thoughtful way he delves into the many
issues that frame sustainable tourism, from both environmental and
Grand Tours and Cook's Tours: A History of Leisure Travel, 1750-1915.
New York: William Morrow and Company, 1997 (401 pp.). Another
history of tourism, this exhaustive account examines the industry
from the business point of view – how it developed in the
18th century with the European "Grand Tour," the rise
of mass tourism spearheaded by people like Thomas Cook, and the
opening of the American West via railroads and the automobile. Like
other accounts, this book illustrates that travel has always had
a cultural heritage dimension to it. Further, many proponents of
tourism saw it as a democratizing force, and one that would foster
understanding between nations.
Yankelovich, Daniel. Coming to Public Judgment: Making
Democracy Work in a Complex World. Syracuse: Syracuse Univ.
Press, 1991 (290 pp). Yankelovich’s findings and
his conclusions have many worthwhile implications for those trying
to build healthy communities. The book is concerned, most of all,
with how the public moves from mass opinion to what he calls "public